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International Triatlon Union   Asociación Iberoamericana de Triatlón
 
 
 
Ayudas Ergogénicas Nutricionales para las Personas que Realizan Ejercicio Físico
Para un deportista es fundamental poder realizar entrenamientos intensos y competiciones frecuentes sin caer en una fatiga crónica, lesión o enfermedad. Además del tipo de alimento, es importante consumir las cantidades adecuadas de energía, nutrientes y agua, con la regularidad correcta, y con la adaptación apropiada a los horarios de los entrenamientos y de las competiciones.
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Tapering for triathlon competition
The taper is a phase of reduced training before major competitions. Training intensity should be maintained to retain or enhance training-induced adaptations during tapering, but reductions in other training variables should allow for sufficient recovery to optimize performance.
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Implementing an injury prevention sports psychology
These injuries cause an inordinately amount of stress to the athlete, can be
career ending and in the worst of cases even life changing or life threatening. They also incur into high costs for the athlete and institution. According to de Loes, Dahlstedt and Thomee (2000), the mean cost of knee injury per hour of sport participation in 12 youth sports is 0.13 USD/hour for females and 0.06 USD/hour for males. More studies are needed to cover other sports, high performance teams and other injuries. One of the main problems in injury research is the lack of definition and report of sport injuries.
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Self-efficacy and its relationship to selected sport psychological constructs in the prediction of performance in ironman triathlon
Sport psychological factors have been identified as potentially important in enhancing triathlon performance, however the role in predicting triathlon performance have been based on recommendations from general sport psychology (Baker & Sedgwick, 2005), some interventions based on imagery, relaxation and self-talk having a positive effect on race times for gymnasium triathlon (Thelwell & Greenless, 2001, 2003), qualitative differences based on active thoughts for expert as compared to passive unrelated thoughts of middle of pack and back of pack ultra endurance triathletes (Baker et al., 2005) and gender differences in attributions for triathlon performance.
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Physiological requirements in triathlon
Millet GP, Vleck VE, Bentley DJ. Physiological requirements in triathlon. J. Hum. Sport Exerc. Vol. 6, No. 2, 2011.

Exercise physiologists working with triathletes have to deal (1) with different exercise modes; (2) variations in swim, cycle and run training history between the athletes that in turn influence their training adaptations and physiological profiles; (3) different genders and finally (4) different triathlon distances (in this article, we shall focus only on Olympic distance OD vs. Long Distance LD)
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Biological passport parameters
MARIO ZORZOLI
International Cycling Union

Zorzoli M. Biological passport parameters. J. Hum. Sport Exerc. Vol. 6, No. 2, 2011.

INTRODUCTION
The “no-start rule”
The fight against doping aims to ensure health protection to athletes and fair competitions. It is therefore the role of anti-doping authorities (International Olympic Committee in the past and now the World Anti-Doping Agency) to establish a list of prohibited substances and methods, the Prohibited List, which includes substances or methods which are either dangerous for the health of the athlete or are performance enhancers or are considered contrary to the ethic of sport.
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Scientists have their say on world conference
Putting triathlon at the forefront of international sports science is just one outcome keynote speakers hope to achieve at the ITU’s first World Conference of Science in Triathlon in Spain this month.

It’s just two weeks until the best minds in sports science and triathlon converge on the University of Alicante, Spain, for the groundbreaking conference from March 24 to 26. Over three days, the topics will range from warm-ups, to injuries, to run, bike and swim legs, as well as recovery and physiological factors.
But what can they actually achieve? We asked three of the keynote speakers what they think.

Dr Gregoire P. Millet, from the University of Lausanne in Switzerland, will address the conference with a keynote speech titled “Physiological requirements for different levels of triathlon”. He hopes it doesn’t just attracts scientists and academics with an interest in triathlon – but a cross-section of people interested in sports science.
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The hottest topics in science and triathlon
Expect pacing, recovery and new technology to monitor performance to be the hot scientific topics in triathlon this year.

It’s just a week out from the first World Conference of Science in Triathlon and last week we heard from some of the keynote speakers on what they hope the first conference achieves in the future. But when it comes to short-term outcomes, what is it that the triathlon world is going to be speaking about right now?
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La Técnica de la Natación
Para nadar rápido, un nadador debe realizar un esfuerzo constante para tratar de maximizar la fuerza propulsiva que puede generar a la vez que debe minimizar las fuerzas resistivas que el/ella experimenta. En el intento de cumplir con esto, los nadadores adoptan varias técnicas diferentes; a veces estas técnicas son buenas y otras veces no tan buenas.

La técnica además desempeña un rol en la prevención de lesiones; ya que una mecánica pobre a menudo produce estrés sobre las articulaciones y partes corporales que no deberían sufrirlo. Con frecuencia, las lesiones aparecen en el hombro. Si bien usted puede analizar su propia técnica de brazada, siempre es recomendable observar un vídeo de su brazada, preferiblemente con un entrenador, para determinar como mejorar su técnica.
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Physiological and biomechanical adaptations to the cycle to run transition in Olympic triathlon: review and practical recommendations for training
Millet, G. P., & Vleck, V. E. (2000). Br J Sports Med., 34((5)), 384-390

Current knowledge of the physiological, biomechanical, and sensory effects of the cycle to run transition in the Olympic triathlon (1.5 km, 10 km, 40 km) is reviewed and implications for the training of junior and elite triathletes are discussed. Triathlon running elicits hyperventilation, increased heart rate, decreased pulmonary compliance, and exercise induced hypoxaemia. This may be due to exercise intensity, ventilatory muscle fatigue, dehydration, muscle fibre damage, a shift in metabolism towards fat oxidation, and depleted glycogen stores after a 40 km cycle. The energy cost (CR) of running during the cycle to run transition is also increased over that of control running. The increase in CR varies from 1.6% to 11.6% and is a reflection of triathlete ability level. This increase may be partly related to kinematic alterations, but research suggests that most biomechanical parameters are unchanged. A more forward leaning trunk inclination is the most significant observation reported. Running pattern, and thus running economy, could also be influenced by sensorimotor perturbations related to the change in posture. Technical skill in the transition area is obviously very important. The conditions under which the preceding cycling section is performed-that is, steady state or stochastic power output, drafting or non-drafting-are likely to influence the speed of adjustment to transition. The extent to which a decrease in the average 10 km running speed occurs during competition must be investigated further. It is clear that the higher the athlete is placed in the field at the end of the bike section, the greater the importance to their finishing position of both a quick transition area time and optimal adjustment to the physiological demands of the cycle to run transition. The need for, and current methods of, training to prepare junior and elite triathletes for a better transition are critically reviewed in light of the effects of sequential cycle to run exercise.
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Acute Effects of Cycling on Running Step Length and Step Frequency
Gottschall, J. S., & Palmer, B. M. (2000). Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 14(1), 97-101.

This study determined the acute effects of an intense cycling bout on running kinematics (step length and step frequency) and on running performance (speed and efficiency). Ten male triathletes completed 2 sessions of testing on separate days. During the first session (the cycle/run condition), the participants completed a 30-minute high-intensity cycling bout, immediately followed by a 5-km run at race effort. For the second session (run/run condition), the participants completed a 30-minute high-intensity running bout at the heart rate measured during the cycling bout, immediately followed by a 5-km run at race effort. Analysis indicated that immediately following the cycling bout, the participants ran with a smaller step length (SL) and a higher step frequency (SF). However, as the cycle/run condition 5-km run progressed, the participants ran with increasing SL, decreasing SF, increasing speed, and increasing efficiency in comparison with the measurements of the run/run condition. Practically, measurements of running kinematics and running performance after cycling differed from measurements taken immediately after running. Therefore, the notion that running form differs after cycling is not merely an individual athlete’s perception, but a valid observation.
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La rehidratación y el vaciado gástrico durante la actividad física intensa con el consumo de bebidas con HC y agua
Lic. Mariano Procopio

PROPÓSITOS: Casi todas las investigaciones analizadas en el presente proyecto fue traducida del inglés, puesto que no hay demasiada información al respecto en nuestra lengua, el propósito de la presente revisión es brindarle esta información traducida y recopilada a: - Profesores de Educación Física que se desempeñan en el ámbito de la preparación física - Entrenadores deportivos de distintas disciplinas deportivas - Atletas de diversos deportes que practiquen ejercicios aeróbicos de larga duración - Preparadores Físicos - Entidades y Asociaciones deportivas - Estudiantes de Educación Física que necesiten obtener información respecto de la deshidratación, rehidratación y acerca del vaciado gástrico durante las pruebas aeróbicas de larga duración OBJETIVOS: He decidido realizar esta revisión bibliográfica con el objetivo de determinar durante el ejercicio aeróbico prolongado lo siguiente: I. Determinar si la ingesta de bebidas con hidratos de carbono, retrasan, aceleran, o no tienen efectos significativos sobre el vaciado gástrico en comparación con el agua II. Determinar que efectos tienen las bebidas carbonatadas sobre el vaciado gástrico y sobre el organismo III. Determinar cuales son las mejores bebidas que debería beber un atleta para aumentar la performance durante las competencias IV. Concluir desarrollando mis hipótesis personales sobre el tema estudiado
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El Triatlón: Propuesta Práctica como alternativa en los Juegos Deportivos Municipales de la Comunidad de Madrid. Parte I
Jose Manuel Hernández Soriano, Manuel Gómez López y Carlos Román Lorente. Ed. Física y Deportes. Revista Digital - Buenos Aires - Año 8 - N° 50 - Julio de 2002

El proyecto que ofrecemos, es un intento de introducir el deporte del triatlón dentro de los Juegos Deportivos Municipales de la Comunidad de Madrid. Para ello ofrecemos un marco teórico que intente justificar su inclusión en este tipo de competiciones. En este artículo proponemos un modelo de competición siempre acompañado de un modelo de formación del triatleta con inicio a edades tempranas, que se caracteriza por la búsqueda del máximo desarrollo del potencial genético del individuo a través de un ambiente estimular rico y adaptado a la edad y a las características y necesidades de cada persona. La mayor prioridad será el desarrollo integral y el fomento de todas las dimensiones de la salud (física, psíquica y social). Ambos modelos parten de un análisis del triatlón (características generales, reglamento, capacidades físicas y psicológicas implicadas, exigencias técnicas y tácticas, características comportamentales, etc.), de un análisis de modelos de formación en natación, ciclismo y carrera a pie, y de sus edades óptimas de rendimiento, de un estudio sobre el entrenamiento deportivo en niños y sobre las fases sensibles de las cualidades físicas y habilidades, así como de la organización del entrenamiento atendiendo a la teoría del entrenamiento cruzado.
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Propuesta práctica de inclusión del Triatlón en los Juegos Deportivos Municipales. Parte II
José Manuel Hernández Soriano, Manuel Gómez López y Carlos Román Lorente.
Ed. Física y Deportes. Revista Digital - Buenos Aires - Año 8 - N° 53 - Octubre de 2002
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